Assignment 1: Deficit Spending During the Great Recession, like any other economic downturns, as unemployment rises, aggregate income declines causing a major decline in tax collections. On the other hand, with the rise in unemployment, spending on safety net programs rise. So, there are not too many good options available to resort the health of the national economy. It will be very difficult to defend cuts in the federal government programs and especially the programs geared to sustain the minimum of the standard of living for the recent “poor.” So, government needs to increase its borrowing. Deficit spending refers to government spending exceeding what it brings in federal income and corporate taxes during a certain period. Deficit spending hence increases government debt. Most economists accept that deficit spending is desirable and necessary as part of countercyclical fiscal policy. In such a case, government increases its borrowing and hence its deficit to compensate for the shortfall in aggregate demand. This is derived from Keynesian economics, and has been the mainstream economics view. Following John Maynard Keynes, many economists recommend deficit spending to moderate or end a recession, especially a severe one. When the economy has high unemployment, an increase in government purchases creates a market for business output, creating income and encouraging increases in consumer spending, which creates further increases in the demand for business output. (This is the multiplier effect). This raises the real gross domestic product (GDP) and the level of employment and lowers the unemployment rate. Government borrowing under such circumstances increases the demand for borrowing and thus pushes interest rates up. Rising interest rates can “crowd out” (discourage) fixed private investment spending, canceling out some of the demand stimulus arising from the deficit Write an essay analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of deficit spending and the effects of federal government borrowing on the economy i.e., the “crowding out” effect. Complete this essay in a Microsoft Word document, and in APA format. Note your submission will automatically be submitted through “TurnItIn” for plagiarism review. Please note that a minimum of 700 words for your essay is required. Your paper should be structured as follows 1. Cover page with a running head2. Introduction: What is deficit spending and how does it work.2.1. Advantages2.2. Disadvantages3. Crowding-out Effect4. Conclusions: Do you believe that deficit spending helps or hinders short-term and long-term economic growth?5. References
Assignment 2: Demand-side Policies and the Great Recession of 2008 Macroeconomic analysis deals with the crucial issue of government involvement in the operation of “free market economy.” The Keynesian model suggests that it is the responsibility of the government to help to stabilize the economy. Stabilization policies (demand-side and supply-side policies) are undertaken by the federal government to counteract business cycle fluctuations and prevent high rates of unemployment and inflation. Demand side policies are government attempts to alter aggregate demand (AD) through using fiscal (cutting taxes and increasing government spending) or monetary policy (reducing interest rates). To shift the AD to the right, the government has to increase the government spending (the G-component of AD) causing consumer expenditures (the C-component of AD) to increase. Alternatively the Federal Reserve could cut interest rates reducing the cost of borrowing thereby encouraging consumer spending and investment borrowing. Both policies will lead to an increase in AD. Develop an essay discussing the fiscal and the monetary policies adopted and implemented by the federal during the Great Recession and their impacts on the U.S. economy.Complete this essay in a Microsoft Word document, and in APA format. Note your submission will automatically be submitted through “TurnItIn” for plagiarism review. Please note that a minimum of 700 words for your essay is required. Your paper should be structured as follows 1. Cover page with a running head2. Introduction: What is the economic meaning of a recession?· A brief discussion of fiscal policies· A brief discussion of monetary policies3. Conclusions: Discuss the extent to which the use of demand side policies (fiscal policy and monetary policy) during the Great Recession of 2008 has been successful in restoring economic growth and reducing unemployment 4. References
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