Nursing research multiple choice questions

1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
Simple random sampling
Convenience sampling
Cluster sampling
Network sampling
2. According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of convenience sampling?
This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.
This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a
random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.
This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study
merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be
generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.
3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?
187
160
87
57
44
4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power
analysis?
A power analysis showed that the ideal sample size was 160
A power analysis showed that the ideal sample size was 80
A post hoc power analysis showed that the power achieved in the study was 0.99
No power analysis was reported by the authors
5. Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in
the research article?
Cervical dilation was between 4-8 centimeters
Had a caesarean section
Able to read and write English
Between 20 and 40 years of age
6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by
the author for the sample in the research article?
Cervical dilation was between 4-8 centimeters
Had a caesarean section
Able to read and write English
Between 20 and 40 years of age
7. What is the acceptance rate for this study? (Hint: see page 232 in your text)
160/187
87/187
57/187

Cannot be calculated
8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?
160/187
87/187
57/187
28/187
9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was
appropriate for conducting this study.
The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research
design.
The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research
design.
The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research
design.
The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for
conducting this study.
10. Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study?
(Select all that apply.)
Apgar score
Childbirth Self Efficacy Scale
Visual Analogue Pain score
Oxygen saturation value
Complications of Childbirth Survey score
11. What was the operational definition for the variable Satisfaction with the Baby?
Apgar score
A subscore of the Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale
Visual Analogue score
Cannot be determined
12. What steps did the authors take to assure treatment fidelity?
Participants were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups
Participants and their spouses/partners were trained in labor dance during prenatal teaching
All research personnel were trained in labor dance using training videos
No steps were taken to assure treatment fidelity
13. What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?
(Select all that apply.)
The authors developed the Mackey Childbirth Rating Scale
The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.
The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys.
This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.

14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?

Yes
No
15. Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
(Select all that apply.)
Participants were contacted by phone by nurse researcher.
Participants were given the questionnaires on enrollment in the study
Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.
Data was collected by the researcher during labor
Participants were recruited from the pool of pregnant patients admitted to the hospital during a specific
period
16. Based on the study’s data collection methods, If there were more than one data collector, would an
estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?
yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.
17. What descriptive statistics are used in this study?
(Select all that apply.)
mean
median
frequencies
standard deviation
z-scores
percentage distributions
18. What inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects?
(Select all that apply.)
Pearson correlations
Factor Analysis
t-Test
Kruskal-Wallis
Chi-Square
ANCOVA
ANOVA
Multiple linear regression equations
None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.
19. What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study?
.01 or 1%
.05 or 5%
.10 or 10%
an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text  
of the article and cannot be inferred.
20. There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the
article would be considered a significant and predicted results?
(Select all that apply.)
Newborns’ first minute oxygen saturation levels were 89 in the experimental groups and 88 in the
control group
The median first minute Apgar score was found to be 9 in DPSG, DPMG, and CG.
The median fifth minute Apgar score was found to be 10 in DPSG, 9 in DPMG, and 8 in CG.
All groups were found to be similar in number of pregnancies, week of pregnancy, cervical dilatation at
the time of hospitalization, and the duration of the active phase
21. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?
The median total labor dance durations were 48 and 56 minutes in DPSG and DPMG, respectively.
Newborns’ first minute oxygen saturation levels were 89 in the experimental groups (DPSG, DPMG)
and 88 in the control group.
The median fifth minute Apgar score was found to be 10 in DPSG, 9 in DPMG, and 8 in CG.
The fifth minute oxygen saturation levels were 99 in the experimental groups and 94 in the control
group.
22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?
The fifth minute oxygen saturation levels were 99 in the experimental groups and 94 in the control
group.
The median total labor dance durations were 48 and 56 minutes in DPSG and DPMG, respectively.
All groups were found to be similar in number of pregnancies, week of pregnancy, and cervical
dilatation at the time of hospitalization.
Abdolahian et al. (2014) reported a VAS score of 6.89 in the experimental groups and 8.29 in the
control group.
23. Which of the following statements are strengths of the study? (Select all that apply.)
The sample was randomly selected.
The groups were randomly assigned.
The study was highly powered.
Oxygen saturation results in this study agreed with those obtained in previous studies.
24. Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these
results?
This study was conducted in a mother-friendly hospital that allows spouses to be in the delivery room.
The satisfaction status of women who received care under the leadership of midwives was found to be
high compared to the women in other groups.
Findings obtained in this study also reveal that labor dance renders positive effects not only on
newborn babies but also on women giving birth.
These study results are compatible with the literature.

25. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future  studies? These study results are compatible with the literature. It is suggested to conduct dance practices in a wider sampling with other attendants a pregnant women  would ask for. This study was conducted in a mother-friendly hospital that allows spouses to be in the delivery room. The results of this study demonstrated that labor dance positively affected labor pain, birth satisfaction,  and neonatal results

1. Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?
Not only does labor pain have negative effects on pregnant women and fetuses, women’s psychological
and emotional states have a great effect on levels of perceived pain.
There is a limited number of studies regarding labor dance.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth
satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes.
A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain
and increases the woman’s satisfaction with birth.
2. Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?
Not only does labor pain have negative effects on pregnant women and fetuses, women’s psychological
and emotional states have a great effect on levels of perceived pain.
There is a limited number of studies regarding labor dance.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth
satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes.
A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain
and increases the woman’s satisfaction with birth.
3. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following statements is important when
considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose?
Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?
Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?
Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?
Does it promote theory testing or development?
Does it identify extraneous variables?
4. When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove & Gray (2019) suggest
that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical
considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment. Which of the following
statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article?
(Select all that apply.)
Funding sources for the study were clearly identified in the article.
The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are described.
Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article.
100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.
5. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the
review of literature (ROL):
Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem
Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem
Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built
To explain the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.
6. Select two MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:
This experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance.
Labor pain has major effects on both mother and fetus.
Patients were excluded if they underwent cesarean section, had induced labor, or received narcotic
analgesics.
Emotional support by significant others enhances the effect of pain control efforts.
7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”)
is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article (count articles
from 2015 to 2020). This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and
counting the number that meet this criterion. Which number below most closely reflects the number of
current citations in the ROL?
5
7
10
13
14
8. Which one of these statements best describes this study’s research framework?
The framework is based on the gate control theory of pain.
The framework is based on endorphin theory.
The framework is based on the humanistic care model.
The framework is based on the biomedical care model.
The framework is not clearly described by the authors.

9. What are some of the key concepts in this study’s theoretical framework?
(Select all that apply)
Random sampling
Emotional support
Perceived pain
Pre-eclampsia
10. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical
framework?
Subjects were eligible to be included if they had no pre-eclampsia.
This experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance.
The support provided by people whose company is desired by pregnant women during the labor
process is the main factor that improves the effective use of non-pharmacological methods.
The labor dance starts in the active labor phase of the first labor stage and continues until the end of the
first stage.
11. On page 311, the authors state that the first research objective, question, or hypothesis was: “This
experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance, which is applied during
the active phase of labor, on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes.”
This is best described as a
Research objective
Research question
Research hypothesis
None of the above
12. Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study?
(Select all that apply.)
Pregnant women
Dance duration
Cesarean section
Number of pregnancies
Apgar score
Perceived pain
13. What is the conceptual definition of the following study variable: labor dance?
Labor dance is a method of body movement with a partner combined with massage from the partner
intended to mobilize emotional support.
Participants who met the inclusion criteria and received training with a spouse or partner were assigned
to the DPSG group.
Labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain and increases the
woman’s satisfaction with birth.
Labor dance is measured by assignment to one of the labor dance groups.
14. What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study
variable: perceived pain?
Women’s psychological and emotional states have a great effect on perceived pain.
Pain was measured by visual analogue scale when cervical dilation was 4 cm. and 9 cm.
A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain.
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are used to cope with labor pain.
15. Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study?
(Select all that apply.)
Age
Gender
Education
Occupation
Race
Religion
16. The authors describe this study as experimental. According to the classification system in Grove
and Gray (2019), which phrase best describes the research design of this study?
Descriptive
Correlational
Quasi-experimental
Experimental
Predictive correlational
17. Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?
Cross-sectional design
Longitudinal design
None of the above
18. Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?
The authors do not describe an intervention or treatment.
The authors mention an intervention or treatment but do not describe the details.
The authors mention an intervention or treatment and describe the details.
The visual analogue pain scale measurement at cervical dilation 4 cm. and 9 cm. can be considered an
intervention or treatment.
19. Does the author specifically mention that any piloting was done prior to conducting this study?
Yes
No
20. The authors indicate on page 311 of the article that the Ege University Research Ethics Committee
approved the study. This indicates that there was ethical approval to conduct the research. In addition,
an informed consent would be provided to each participant. Per Grove & Gray (2019), which of the
following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent?
(Select all that apply.)
A statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study
A copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal.
An explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study
A complete list of references to be used in the study.

Please answer the above questions by reading the article from link below or the pdf posted.

Akin, B., & Saydam, B. K. (2020). The effect of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 16(5), 310–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2020.05.017

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