Paper #1 Nick
Mankind has been at the top of the food chain since the beginning of time. The consideration for protecting an animal or creature from extinction is relatively new to humanity. The management of wildlife and protecting nature is one way we can learn to live in harmony with nature. There are two sides to this process. One good example is the protection of bison and people being proactive towards bringing these animals back to sustainable levels. There are even commercially raised bison to produce food. This is an example of humans recognizing the fact that there are limits to what anything in nature can withstand and working towards living in harmony. On the other hand, people have lost the ability to create jobs and make their communities better because the changes in a habitat for a little-known fish or bird. I do not think we should sacrifice anything in nature needlessly, but with our knowledge and technology we can find alternative environments and habitats for some creatures. Humans cannot save every creature from becoming extinct. Some would even argue we ourselves moving towards extinction, but nature will adapt no matter how hard we try to change it. The best alternative is to learn how to protect creatures and nature by a deliberate plan of protection and management. Conservation biology was one form management that can provide the studies, information, and data to assist us in making good decisions. There must be a balance for any type of management or planning to work effectively for everyone and everything (Redford, et al, 2011). The collection of DNA to attempt to reproduce extinct animals is not a viable option. Microbiology and genetics have allowed humans to make vast improvements in medical care, but when we try to clone or reproduce creatures I think it is trying to change nature instead of adapting to it. Many creatures have survived throughout human existence, but that does not mean they are a benefit or the most physiologically superior (Daempfle, 2016). Keeping DNA from any species can serve a good purpose, but trying to reproduce an extinct creature from DNA is not what nature intended.
Daempfle, P. (2016). Essential Biology: An Applied Approach. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company. https://www.betheluniversityonline.net/cps360/default.aspx?SectionID=2967&tabid=155#/unit/5/Read
Redford, K. H., Amato, G., Baillie, J., Beldomenico, P., Bennett, E. L., Clum, N., Cook, R., Fonseca, G., Hedges, S., Launay, F., Lieberman, S., Mace, G.M., Murayama, A., Putnam, A., Robinson, J. G., Rosenbaum, H., Sanderson, E. W., Stuart, S. N., Thomas, P., and Thorbjarnarson, J. What Does It Mean to Successfully Conserve a (Vertebrate) Species? BioScience, 61(1), 39-48. https://doi-org.bethelu.idm.oclc.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.1.9
It is important that all species are prevented from going extinct especially if the species is endangered due to human activity. If the cause of an animal going extinct is due to humans, then it is very important to prevent the extinction of species. Disruption of species population causes them eventually to go extinct (Cardillo et al, 2005). It is crucial to protect and preserve their environments. One of the leading causes of extinction is habitat loss and poaching (Simberloff, 1986).
To prevent the annihilation of wildlife and their ecosystems; individuals can help preserve their natural habitats and not interfere or disrupt their environments (Cardillo et al, 2005). Wildlife and plant life are more beneficial than people want to realize. Plant species are sometimes used for medicines, which originate from products and chemicals developed by animals (Simberloff, 1986). Therefore performing a critical role in the treatment of numerous illnesses.
The process of de-extinction in my opinion is a good attempt to correct past wrongs. I view this topic as impractical due to this method potentially being avoided. De-extinction could potentially expose current generations to previous illnesses and diseases. The idea of creating a species is a counterfeit way of the continuation of species exploitment; they should continue to stay ugly to rest.
Simberloff, D. (1986). The Proximate Causes of Extinction. Patterns and Processes in the History of Life; pp 259-276.
Cardillo, M., Mace, G., Jones, K., Bielby, J., And Bininda-Emonds, O. (2005). Multiple Causes of High Extinction Risk in Large Mammal Species. 309, Issue 5738, 1239-1241. DOI: 10.1126/science.1116030
Paper #3 Brandon
New Trends in Policing
Problem-oriented policing is the idea that police officers need to focus primarily on specific problems instead of incidents, these problems can be the underlying conditions that contribute to the incidents, criminal activity, and other community concerns (Cordner, 2019). Simply put the goal of problem-oriented policing is to extinguish the issues that give rise to the incidents of criminal activity. Problem-oriented policing is basically problem-solving policing and has a goal of replacing a reactive police force with a proactive police force. A fundamental principle of problem-oriented policing is that law enforcement must be understood as just one means of policing, but that all police officers have the societal goals of crime control, protection to the public, fear reduction, and maintaining order (Cordner, 2019). Problem-oriented policing encourages police officers to carefully analyze any issues that may arise and choose the path that yields the best results for the victims and suspects that may be involved. Community policing is a policing technique that involves an active partnership between police officers and the leaders within a community. This policing technique allows police officers to adopt the strategies and tactics used to fit the needs of the community the police department serves with a considerable amount of involvement of the members of the community (Cordner, 2019). Community policing allows law enforcement officers to make strong ties and have a strong police presence within the communities. If used effectively, this policing technique can allow police officers to build and maintain a positive image within their assigned communities. Officers will conduct foot patrols throughout their neighborhoods, which can be effective in making citizens feel safer but may not reduce the amount of criminal activity (Cordner, 2019). Some departments began implementing police squads such as the Citizen-Oriented Police Enforcement (COPE) units to target crime and reduce fear within neighborhoods, which produced mixed results (Cordner, 2019). The issue with community policing is that it is only as effective as the amount of effort that this technique is given. If law enforcement officers fail to follow through with a good amount of effort, then community policing can be rendered ineffective. Intelligence-led policing is an innovative strategy for crime prevention efforts that use futuristic efforts and a more targeted approach to crime prevention by applying focus on identification, analysis, and management of continuing and emerging problems and risks (Phillips, 2012). Intelligence-led policing borrows strategies and tactics from other policing techniques and uses gathered intelligence to lead police operations. I would use intelligence-led policing to guide my police department since this policing encompasses tactics from all policing techniques and makes further use of technology to guide police operations.
Cordner, G. W. (2019). Police Administration. [Savant Learning Systems]. Retrieved from https://savantlearningsystems.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780429655463/
Phillips, S. W. (2012). The attitudes of police managers towards intelligence-led policing. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 81(9), 13. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A303226799/AONE?u=tel_a_bethelc&sid=AONE&xid=e2245d8d
Paper #4 Ciera
Throughout the years, a wide array of strategies have been employed in an effort to best serve and protect our communities. As of recent years, two concepts, known as Problem-Oriented Policing and Community-Oriented Policing, have taken hold in many departments across the country. As the name suggests, Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) emphasizes police focus more-so on identifiable issues than just incidences (Cordner, 2019). By doing so, the goal is to be able to eliminate the cause of these issues, as opposed to simply handling whatever outcome is caused by them. POP also encompasses the idea that the most lawful and morally-correct choices are the ones that should be used in policing, not always just enforcing strict rules and regulations implemented by our criminal law (Corder, 2019). These new tactics are well employed in-part with the ideas of Community-Oriented Policing (COP), which aims to use the entire community in crime prevention (Cordner, 2019). By use of foot patrols, neighborhood watches, and higher officer-citizen interactions, there ends up being a significantly larger group of individuals looking to keep things in order, ultimately ensuring that members of these communities feel safer, more involved, and understood.
Although these two strategies are very obviously different from one another, they work hand-in-hand to lend their information to a different method of crime prevention – Intelligence-Led Policing. With this method, intelligence is gathered at all levels and by all avenues, to include community members, and provided to leadership to determine the best course of action to take in order to address the specific criminal issues the jurisdiction is faced with (Corder, 2019). One researcher had an interesting take on police that corresponds with the ways of Intelligence-Led Policing, stating that every officer “should be looked at as [a] knowledge worker” (Perry, 2018, p. 103). Viewing police this way puts an officer’s work into a different perspective, allowing us to see that every call and incident only garners more information for the department to use, even if it appears to be something menial or that ends up with no contact.
If I were the top executive in my agency, I don’t see why one avenue would have to be used over the other when instead, they could be used in conjunction with one another. However, if I had to choose one to put the majority of my efforts into, it would likely be the ILP method, as it is a tried and true method heavily used by other federal agencies to protect our homeland security. Applying this method to smaller jurisdictions and smaller crimes should prove to be issue-free.
Cordner, G. W. (2019). Police Administration (10th ed.). Routledge.
Perry, H. (2018). Policing organized crime: intelligence strategy implementation. Police Practice and Research, 19(1), 102-104. https://doi-org.bethelu.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15614263.2017.1351667
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