Objective: The students will complete a Virtual Classroom Discussion Exercise that will Extend your knowledge beyond the core required materials for this class, Engage in collaborative learning with other students to improve the quality of the learning experience for all students and Apply the higher cognitive skills associated with critical thinking to your academic and professional work. ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES (10%): Students will judgmentally amount the readings from Chapter assign on your textbook. This assignment is prearranged to help you to learning in all disciplines because it helps student’s process information rather than simply receive it. You need to read the PowerPoint Presentation assigned for week 4 and develop a 2-3 page paper replicating your appreciative and competence to apply the readings to your ethics knowledge. Each paper must be typewritten with 12-point font and double-spaced with standard margins. Follow APA style 7th edition format when referring to the selected articles and include a reference page. EACH PAPER SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 1. Introduction (25%) Provide a brief synopsis of the meaning (not a description) of each Chapter and articles you read, in your own words that will apply to the case study presented. 2. Discussion Challenge (65%) Health care in the 21st century is governed by a confusing array of rules, regulations, laws and ethical standards. Issues that involve confidentiality, informed consent and patient relationships can appear out of nowhere, even when health care workers have the best of intentions. What’s legal today might not be considered ethical, and there is the ever-present threat of being sued for negligence and malpractice. There are unresolved issues around doctor assisted dying that have yet to be worked out, while medical procedures considered ethical for adults might not be seen as ethical for minors. Here are the top five ethical issues that health care managers of today and tomorrow will be facing in the course of delivering responsible and compassionate patient care. a. Patient Confidentiality b. Patient Relationships c. Malpractice and Negligence d. Informed Consent e. Issues Related To Physician Assisted Suicide (PAD). STUDENT CHALLENGE: 1. Describe, mention and define the five ethical issues that health care managers of today and explain your point of view relate with the ethical implication. 2. Designate and discussion how this five issues where affected by the COVID-19 pandemic? Case Study Introduction Chapter five of Healthcare Ethics; critical issues for the 21st century delves deep into healthcare provision issues to the older generation. The chapter talks about the systemic challenges that aging populations face when they try to access palliative care services from public and private healthcare facilities. The population needing long-term care is increasing exponentially and expected to increase over the next decade due to baby boomers’ entrance into the elderly community. Poor people are more affected by the inadequate supply of healthcare facilities due to the health problems that affect older people. Government insurance programs and private insurance payouts. The high cost of care and inadequate systems to facilitate the needy make it harder for older people in need of palliative care to get services. Older people are more reliant on their children to access finances for medical care, impacting the family dynamics and provision of services. Even though Medicaid is changing under the PPACA program, beneficiaries still struggle to meet their healthcare costs because Medicaid does not cover the full costs of services. Case Analysis; Harm reduction Healthcare providers need to understand that drug and substance abuse is a problem part of social systems; therefore, they should have programs designed to help those on need. Furthermore, the illicit drug problem in healthcare is a complex issue that demands evidence-based strategies to deal with the cases when they arise. In the case of Ms. L, the healthcare providers are avoiding to address the issues that she has regarding substance abuse. They fail to realize that provision of a holistic approach to healthcare demands a multifaceted strategy to deal with the challenges that could arise out of drug abuse cases. Programs should be implemented to give patients like MS L an opportunity to have primary care to avoid the excuse of the fear of drug misuse by the patient. Doctors and healthcare stakeholders know that Ms. L’s drug problem significantly impairs their capability to offer solutions for her cancer and HIV problem. They ought to know that her immunity will dwindle further as she uses cocaine and heroin. In her case, there should be facilities built to give the patient a chance to recover and undergo treatment for addictions. Giving up on a patient for fear of abusing painkillers further degrades the efforts to care for long term illnesses. Systemic and legislative changes should be made to give people like Ms. L the chance to enjoy insurance and efficient care facilities. Insurance coverage continues to be a big challenge in the healthcare system in the US because bureaucratic challenges make it hard for patients to get the services they need (Morison and Furlong, 2018). Patients should not have limited services because they have more than one underlying issue. Policy changes should be encouraged. Furthermore, harm reduction policies should include cooperation between the patient and the medical team to produce combined efforts towards patient care. Patients should be involved in harm reduction programs to ensure success. The patients physically far from the healthcare facilities should be given admission or referred to hospitals near their homes. Ethical Considerations Healthcare providers must provide solutions for any problems that a patient might have regarding applying drugs and treatment models. Therefore, doctors in the case of Ms. L neglected their duty to give the patient quality services. They know that she has a history of active usage of illegal drugs and secondary substances, but do not take proactive measures to give her the services she needs. They should have looked for a way of rehabilitating her to stop using cocaine and heroin to give them a chance to administer proper pain medication. The radiation center gave her Percocet but declined to give her further medications knowing that she would automatically go back to self-medicating to relieve pain. Her physician should have blatantly refused to offer her painkillers but should have involved other stakeholders in finding out whether she could be admitted to a facility where she could be monitored. Furthermore, her inability to tolerate pain due to her cancer location should not have been an excuse to send her home and give her cab vouchers knowing that she could not manage to move occasionally. Even after completing her radiation and being admitted to a holding facility, the medical staff could not prescribe pain-relieving medication. The case shows how patients are inadequately helped due to the lack of personalized services from healthcare providers. Most people who need long-term care do not reside in nursing homes, making it harder to treat patients who might need, but services lack primary supervision at their homes (Morison and Furlong, 2018). Ms. L might be unable to manage her diseases in the long run because she has many conflicting challenges that healthcare providers failed to find a solution for. Fear of Insurance in Palliative Care Many patients in need of long-term Palliative care do not wholly embrace insurance because of the problems of access. Private insurance is a new concept arising out of the need to diversify treatments, but what it offers is unknown to many, and Medicaid does not provide full payment of services (Morison and Furlong, 2018). Furthermore, some patients do not have access to information that explains what is offered, increasing upsets when they are told they cannot be fully insured. Additionally, some patients do not know whether they will need insurance in the future, therefore failing to apply for one, or prefer paying out of pockets because cost estimation is hard to do. Conclusion The case of Ms. L provides essential insight into access to services in long term care services. It shows the systemic challenges that people in need of palliative face when balancing their lives with treatment models available. Ms. L did not get quality services because of her substance abuse because the stakeholders could not provide a solution to her challenges. The case represents how older people are unable to access full services due to costs, mobility challenges, and an inadequate policy on healthcare provision. The case should be used as a stepping stone to address the healthcare challenges that older people face because more patients undergo similar challenges. When a patient needs long-term care but cannot access facilities or insurance, they are likely to self-medicate to reduce medication costs or buy time waiting for the worst-case scenarios. Aging Americans are increasing exponentially, but the available healthcare systems are unable to satisfy their needs. A holistic approach to the aging population’s challenges and needs should be conducted, considering diversity issues, social, economic, and cultural differences. Information about insurance and nursing home facilities and their requirements should be easily accessible to the needy personnel.
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